Parviz Hakimi standing by his father's portrait

Brigadier General Musa Hakimi (Nazm-ol-Saltaneh *)

Ebrahim's BrotherIranian General who became one of the
Military Commanders of Nationalist
Forces, Saviours of  the
Constitutional Movement & Democracy in 1909

General Musa Hakimi Nazm ol Saltaneh  was a very courageous officer and together with his sister Mah Lagha were strong figures of the  family.  His title  Nazm ol Saltaneh  dates back to the Qajar era and literally means one who is trusted with maintaining order in the land. His rank in Persian was Mir Panj .

He was brother of Ebrahim Hakimi the last Hakim-el-Molk.  He was a senior member of the military in Iran in the latter part of Qajar era.  He sided with the forces of the Constitutional Movement and in July 1909 and led one of the two armies of the Nationalist Freedom Fighters(Mojahedeen) who clashed with the Persian Cossack Brigade, the forerunner to the modern Iranian army, in the outskirts of Teheran. The Mojahedeen  eventually liberated Teheran from the Russian led forces supporting the Qajar King Mohammad Ali Shah, ending the latter's attempt to roll back constitutional monarchy and rule Iran dictatorially with the support of Russian officers serving in the Iranian Cossack brigade.

The Mojahedeen forces consisted of two main groups, one group came down from the Caspian province of Gilan in Northern Iran under the political leadership of  Sepahdar Tonekabonie Khalaatbari. The other came from Southern Iran and Isfahan led by the Bakhtiari Chieftan Sardar Assad.   The forces having approached Teheran from the North and South then united to liberate the capital. The military commander of the Gilan group  was Yeprem or Yefrem Khan, an Armenian who passionately hated the tyranny of Czarist Russia and the other group was led by Musa Hakimi.   In their first clash with the Shah's forces, the Mojahedeen  fought non stop for three days. In the above fight, in a village near Teheran (Merhabad) Musa was wounded in both sheens by shrapnel (see photo), yet he continued fighting showing exceptional courage (for a full account of the above see the biblical  references 2   &   6). 

When King Edward VII died of Britain in 1910, Musa attended the funeral as part of the  Persian delegation (see photo).  His report of the funeral in Persian is available in digital image format: 1 2  3 4  5.

He had a falling out with Reza Khan (later Reza Shah) and 'sat at home'  as the Persian expression goes without pay and he was under observation all during Reza Shah's rule.  It was said that Reza Shah was wary of him. There were various rumours of the reasons for his falling out with Reza Shah. One wild rumour which is based on the notion that the 1920 Coup by Reza Shah in Iran was a British conspiracy and the British first offered Musa Hakimi the power. In the last two centuries Iranians believe every event in Iran is inspired by one or other of the old colonial foes, mainly the British.  The truth is nothing of the sort.

In a letter to a journal of history in Iran, his son explained the reason was a result of Musah Hakimi's pursuit of the investigation into the murder of his nephew Gholi  (Kamal o doleh's  son) who was working as a civilian  as the  treasurer of an army division based in Eshrat Abad (circa 1924). Gholi refused to release the funds to General Jan Mohammad Alaie (Jan Mohammad Khan  -   who supported Reza Khan in his coup of 1920 ), the commander of Eshrat Abad Army Division, with the approval of central treasury.  At the same time the parliament was debating the future of monarchy and Reza Khan was the prime minister. Someone had given the leader of the opposition the clergy Modares a secret copy of the War Ministry's budget which the latter used in his censure of the government.  The young Hakimi was accused of releasing the information to the minority oppositon leader and was not heard of again.  Later his headless body was found near the fort and some time after that his head.  Early in Reza Shah's rule , he asked to see General Musa Hakimi offering him  a senior post if he would drop the case. Musa did not agree and that is the last time the two of them met.  Musa lost his post and pension. He was being watched till Reza Shah was removed form the throne by the British when the Allies invaded neutral Iran in 1942.

Last updated by Hamid in 2012, London


General Moussa Hakimi (Nazm-al-Saltaneh)

Liberation of Teheran

Mosa & Ali Akbar Son of Mahmoud (Hakim-al-Molk) The first Iranian Acriculture Minister

Some of the troops under his command
Parviz Hakimi, Moussa's son
R to L. Alborz, Monir ( Wife of Parviz ) Sara Elina ( Parviz Grand Daughter ), Farzin Hakimi
Great Grand Daughters of Nazm-al-saltaneh.JPG

Tree last updated 2013 thanks to Yasmin

General Musa Hakimi
Zahra Eessa Parviz


Parviz Monir
Alborz Farzin
Ghods Saltaneh
Colonel Ali Hakimi


Minoo Vajihe Mitra


Maryam Hakimi

Mehdi Mobargha





Mina Mobargha

Mehrdad Mehrain




Mehrada Mobargha


Nader Mobargha


Massoud Mobargha


Sara Mobargha


Minoo Hakimi

Bahman Ahanin





Vajihe Hakimi

Dr Amir-Hekmat





Mitra Hakimi

Firouz Amid



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