Mohammad Davoud Hakim  Chief Physician  the Court of Safavid
Shah Abbas, and Shah Safi
Physician and Amir to the Court of Emperor Shah Jahan (founder of Taj Mahal)
Turco-Persian ruler of India "Taqarrub Khan" and his son Emperor Aurengzeb

Mohammad Davoud Hakim

son of Hakim (Doctor) Enayatollah (Massir al Umara, Shahnawaz Khan Vol 1 Pages 490/1 PDF and see the text below)

Mohammad Ali Khan Khansaman (**)
died 10th May 1687 A.D.
Mohammad Taghi

Moussa Hakim


Hejri Lunar

Georgian Event
 17th Safar 1054

25th April 1644

Enters the court of Shah Jahan in India (Shahnawaz)
1056 1646 Given the title "Taqarrub Khan" (Shahnawaz)



Hakim Mosque built Isfahan
1073 1663 Dies in Agra Fort, India (Shahnawaz)


Moussa Hakim

Razi Hakim

Mohammad Hassan Hakim

Mirza Hassan Hakimbashi

Mirza Ali Naghi Hakimbashi

married Kadijeh Kanoum Borojerdi
Abolhassan Zahra
married Sona Khanoum of Heris Azarbaijan
Mahmoud Massoud
married Khangezi Khanoum of Javanshir
Mohammad Ali Kheirolnessa

(**) Biography of Mohammad Ali Khan Khansaman (Master of Household) in Court of Aurengzib

Note to the Reader:
Since the advent of the Internet Archive and Google Books, I have found a wealth of material of information and primary sources (texts such as Padeshahnameh the history of Shah Jan the ruler of India. Initially I had to rely on the travel writings of westerners in the employ of Dara (Aurengzib's rival) and whatever books I could obtain from bookshops in India. I am providing this information as I go along. Hopefully one day I will have the the time to re-design this page and provide a single narrative. Sources on this page (latest first):

London, 2013

On Discovery of the identity of Hakim Davoud's Father

The family tree does not identify Hakim Davoud's father. From the new sources and recent research his father has been identified as one Hakim Enyatollah or Inyatollah as a trusted physician of the Shah Abbas Safavid (in Padeshah-Nameh Lahori it is mentioned that Hakim Davoud replaced his father as the Chief Physician to the Court). Searching Hakim Enuyatollah yielded a person of the same name as one of the famous physicians of Shah Abbas, namely Hakim Enyatollah Yazdi (meaning of the city Yazd) from Volume 2 History of Medicine Encyclopaedia published in Iran. Searching further on Hakim Enyatollah Yazdi did not yield any further results except for one very interesting item on history of women physicians in Iran. It quotes


Maathir-Ul-Umara, Biography of the Persian and Hindu Officers of the Rulers of Inda From 1500 to 1780 A.D.
By Nawa Samsam-ud-Daula Shah Nawaz Khan and his son Abdul Hayy, Translated by H Beveridge
Vol 2 Pages
TAQARRUB KHAN (Vol. I, pp. 490-493).

His name was Hakim Daud, and he was the son of Hakim Inayat Ullah.  He was the foremost pupil of Mirza Muhammad father of Hakim Masih-u-Zaman.  After his father's death on account of his great skill and experience as a physician, became intimate companion of Shah Abbas I, and was at the head of Shah's physicians.  After the death of that great sovereign, he through the machinations of his enemies ill treated by Shah Safi, as he also did not receive proper consideration from Shah Abbas II - who was still young - he became averse to staying on in Iran. Ostensibly he gave out his intention of going on pilgrimage, but in real he proceeded to the Court of Emperor Shah Jahan from Iraq via Basra, and disembarked at the port of Laheri (Lari, in Sindh) the 17th year 1053 A.H. (1643 A.D.) he presented himself at the Court, and was appointed to the rank of 1,000, and received Rs. 20,000 as a present[1]. By a fortunate coincidence Beo-am Sahib - who was loved by Emperor Shah Jahan more than all his sons—was, only twenty days before his arrival, going to her bed-chamber after waiting upon her father.  Suddenly the corner of her dress caught fire[2] from a lamp which was lighted in the portico on the way.  As the clothes of the ladies of theh Harem of honour are extremely delicate, and fragrant oils were sprinkled on them, the flames shot out and caught all over the dress.  Although four (female) servants, who were in attendance, took all possible steps to extinguish the flames, but as their dresses also caught fire they were obliged to look after themselves.  Before others could know of this accident, and water could be brought, the back and both sides of the body and both the arms of the Princess were burnt.  In great anguish the Emperor himself undertook the task of nursing, and in the first instance had recourse to spiritual remedies.  From the first to the third day 5,000 muhars (gold coins) and 5,000 rupees were distributed as alms to the poor each day.  Until convalescence large sums were spent in charity, and seven lacs of rupees of government dues[3], for which debtors in detention were responsible, were remitted.  It was also ordered that after this, 1,000 rupees a day or 360,000 rupees a year should be distributed to the poor as alms
on behalf of the Princess.  Afterwards bodily remedies were resorted
to, and physicians and surgeons came from all quarters, and applied themselves to cure the patient.

Hakim Daud, whose arrival at such a time was a lucky coincidence, made use of proper remedies for various diseases which developed from the burns, such as lazum tab (hectic fever), lainat taba[4] intermittent fever), and tahabbauj itraf chasbm[5] (swellings round eyes).  He became an object of praise and felicitation.  On the occasion of the festival to celebrate the convalescence he was raised to the rank of 1,000 with 200 horse, received various other gifts, gained a position of trust with the Emperor.  Further all offerings (to the Emperor) on Fridays were for one year assigned to him.  In the 20th year he received the high title of Taqarrub Khan, and in the 23rd year his rank was advanced to 3,000 with 800 horse, the 26th year he displayed his great skill in treating Akbarabadi Mahal[6], and in addition to an increase of 500 in his rank reccieved present of Rs. 30,000.  In the 27th year his rank was increased 4,000 with 3,000 horse.  In the 31st year when the Emperor afflicted with strangury and as a result of use of cooling medicines this ended in diabetes and great weakness of the body; no prescription| of the ablest physicians proved of any use.  But for the relicf of strangury much benefit was derived from the use of manna (shir-khisht) which was ably prescribed by Taqarrub Khan.  In accordance willi presage, the Emperor changed his residence, and in Muharram 1068 A.H. (October, 1657 A.D.) came from the Capital to Agra, an taking ma'-ul-lahm (essence of meat) and strong soups recovered his. health.  Taqarrub Khan was promoted to the exalted rank of 5,000 and beat loudly the drum of his high office.  After the throne of India adorned by the accession of Emperor Aurangzib, and Shah Jahan was kept in retirement in the Agra fort, Taqarrub Khan who had made excellent endeavours in treating Shah Jahan, and had become acquainted with his constitution received a reward of 30,000 ashrafis and was again the recipient of royal favours.  He was appointed to complete the cure, and to restore Shah Jahan to health. After this he, for some reason, became the object of censure by Emperror Aurangzib, and for a time lived in retirement.  In the beginning of the 5th year Emperor Aurangzib suffered from a severe attack of fever, and became extremely weak.  On this occasion, Taqarrub Khan was again restored to favour, and made the recipient gifts and bounties even though he was not asked to treat the Emperor[7].  He was, however, allowed to pay his respects.  In the same year, 1073 A.H. (1662 A.D.) he died[8].   His son Muhammad Ali was relieved of his mourning dress by the grant of a robe of honour by the Emperor.  He also had been dismissed from office on count of his father's faults, but was now restored to the rank of 1,500 with 200 horse.  As he became the envy of the leading men of time owing to his close association with the Emperor, a separate account account about him has been included[9].

[1] The above account is taken almost verbatim from his biography Badsbahnama, II, p. 756, where, however, it is stated that he came to India after performing the pilgrimage. See also id. pp. 367, 368, where it is stated that he arrived at the Court 20 clays after the accident, but the rank n which he was appointed is given as 1,500 with 200 horse. The year in the text is incorrectly given as 1053 instead of 1054 A.H. 

[2] The burning took place on 27th Muharram, 1054 A.H. (5th April,1644 A.D.).  A detailed account is given in Badshahnama, II, pp.363 – 369 In Khafi Khan I pp. 598 - 600 the year of  accident is  given as 1053 A.H. and it is stated that two of the four maidservants who tried to extinguish the flames died of their injuries.  Beale, Oriental Biographical Dictionary (1894  edn.), p. 190, apparently on Stewart's authority states that she was cured the treatment of an English physician named Gabriel Boughton, but this is incorrect, see Irvine's note in Storia do Mogor, I, p. 219.  Boughton treated one of Shuja's.ladies.

[3] 'Ain-ul- mal. From B3dshahnama, II, p. 365 it appears that criminals wrere also released.

[4] Badshabnama, II, p. 368

[5] Of. cit., p. 3681

[6] One of Shah Jahan's wives.  Her  name was 'Izz-un-Nisa Bcgam, see Beale, Oriental. Biographical Dictionary, p. 45.  She died on 28th January 1678 (4th Dhul Hijjab, 1088 A.H.), vide  Maathir-i-'Alamgiri, p. 160, and not 29th  January, 1677, as stated by Beale.

[7] Alamgirnama,  p. 749

[8] Op. cit., p. 757, and Maathir-i-'Alamgiri, p. 42

[9] Maathir-ul-Umara, Text, III, pp. 625-627, translation antea pp.111, 112

To find out about our ancestor I hit upon the idea of finding out about The Hakim Mosque as we know from the family tree that he was the founder of this mosque, searching through the web yielded surprisingly good information about the mosque, its founder Hakim (doctor) Mohammad Davoud and more importantly the first substantive historical references.  Thomas Rochford provided the first clue which was Dr Honarfar's book on Isfahan's monuments and through the kind assistance of Mr Karim Zadeh who provided copies of the relevant pages the following information has been gleaned about our oldest known ancestor. The pages from Dr Honarfar's book are available on this site in Persian image document or in English.  Aunt Fataneh and Bahar provided the information from the Persian book published by Ministry of Antiquities about Monuments of Iran, an English summary of which is available. 

I then obtained copies of Chardin, Bernier and Manucci, European travellers to the Middle East and India in the 17th Century. Chardin's nine volume account of his travels has not been translated to English and only abridged versions exist. All the material relating to Chardin are from Dr Honarfar and Monuments of Persia. Bernier and Manucci were in the court of Mongol (Turcomen-Persian) rulers of India at the same time as Mohammad Davoud and probably had met him.  In addition to the bibliographical references, the relevant parts of Bernier's account and Manucci's account are provided on this site and both make fascinating reading as it was under Timurids that the so called Mughal [Mongol] empire in India was as its Zenith, leaving behind such magnificient historical artifacts such as the Peacock Trone, and buildings such as the Taj Mahal. The history of this era reads far better than fiction as the rivalries of the Court turn to tragedy.

What we know of Mohammad Davoud is narrated below however to do the story  justice, I would encourage the reader to visit all the following sites: The Isfahan Site for a virtual tour of the Hakim Mosque, the Hakim Mosque page on this site which includes a translation of Honarfar and pictures kindly supplied by Thomas Rochford after his visit to Isfahan in summer of 2000, the pages from Bernier and Manucci.  

An important link is the poem inscribed on the northern entrance of the Hakim Mosque.  It states that it was founded by Mohammad Davoud (western David) entitled as " Tagharrob Khan In The Indian Court" who was physician to the Persian kings Shah Safi I (reigned 1629-1642AD) and Shah Abbas II (1642-1666 AD) of the Safavi dynasty.  Tagharrob as a title means the person held dear and khan is a generic Persian male title meaning lord or squire.  We further learn about the link because of references to Mohammad Davoud in the writings of the French traveller Chardin who travelled twice to Persia in the second half of the 17th century and references to Tagharrob Khan by  Bernnier  who travelled to India in the middle of the same century.  Chardin describes him as physician to Shah Safi I (1629-1642 AD) and Abbas II. Schindler describes him as a consultant physician to Shah Abbas, Chardin goes on to describe how he fell out of Shah's favour and (probably fearing for his life) escaped to India. 

He then quotes from Bernier's travelling diaries and mentions Hakim Davoud's rapid rise in the Indian court. Hakim (Doctor) Mohammad Davoud very quickly succeeded in the Indian court and became a prominent person.  He seems to have been involved in all sorts of intrigue. According to Chardin's quote of  Bernier's travels, Mohammad Hakim played a significant role in the war between Aurengzib and his brothers.  He very quickly established himself in a prominent position in Aurenzib's court and started sending plenty of riches to his family in Isfahan, and either out of a sense of patriotism or because of a desire to keep his name alive, continued doing so until the construction of the mosque was completed.  Bernier's account is confirmed in Niccolao Manucci's account of his travels and life in 17th century India.

Bernier in his account of his travels describes Mohammad Davoud as a physician who became one of 'Omrah' (taken from Arabic Omara, plural of Amir meaning chieftan or lord) in the court of Aurengzeb and may have been used by latter in a meeting of the ruling family to decide the fate of his unfortunate brother Dara. An interesting discovery was Bernier's use of the title Hakim Al Molk to describe one of the Persian chieftans in the court of Aurengzeb (the actual expression used was Hakim Al Molok which is a mistake as the latter is a feminine title while he was clearly referring to a male courtier) .  Unfortunately he does not give the name of the courtier, just his title.  It may have been in reference to Mohammad Davoud. This is the same title used centuries later for the Hakimis prominent in the Persian Courts and this is the earliest reference to this title in relation to a family member.  It is impossible to say whether it came from his work in the Safavi court in Persia or was given to him by Aurengzeb as Persian was the main language used in the Timurids Court.

The following poem which appears on the mosiacs on the eastern entrance of the mosque confirm that Tagharrob Khan described by Bernier  and Mohammad Davoud the founder of the mosque are indeed the same person:

In the age that the throne is adorned by the ruler of the revolving world, the king of kings
The Solomon of (his?) time, Abbas The Second, the shadow of god
Omniscient was made the sagacious physician Davoud
Who came to be called in the court of India as Tagharrob khan
That he must make his way without delay to Isfahan
To lay the foundation of a mosque like Davoud’s paradise
It was through the efforts of the employer that in these times there was constructed
An auspicious mosque like the solitary spiritual world
Pleasant place of prayer which liberates the mind in a benevolent manner
Date of construction is written clearly in this next part
The centrepoint of worship is now from Davoud of Isfahan
                                1067 (A.H.-1656/7 AD )

 In the book Monuments of Iran published by ministry of antiquity in Iran, Bernier is further quoted saying that Hakim Davoud eventually falls out of favour in the Indian court and dies penniless.  In the English translation of Bernier and Manucci, his death is described as a miserable one.  According to history of the moslem rule in India Mohammad Davoud died in 1073 AH or 1662/3.

Other sources or interesting reads from the internet:
Persian Physicians in India (Salam Knowledge Website):


Hakim  Dawud was the son of Hakim lnayatullah who was the pupil of Fakhr al-Din Shirazi (Mirza Muhammad), father of Hakim Sadra and personal physician of Shah Abbas Safawi."22"
Due to his expertise in medicine and in-depth knowledge of sciences, Hakim Da'wud became a close companion of Shah 'Abbas Safawi, after the death of his father. Shah Safi and Shah 6Abbas II (successors of Shah Abbas Safawi) did not give due respect and attention to men of learning. The Hakim felt aggrieved and in 1053 A.H./1644 A.D. he came to India and entered the court of Emperor Shahjahan who gave him the rank of Derh Hazari (Officer having 1500 horsemen under his command) and Rs. 20,000 as a gift."
23" According to Shah Nawaz Khan (quoting Hakim's son Muhammad 'All), Shahjahan used to give great importance to Hakim Da'wud because of his extraordinary skill in medicine."24" Hakim Da'wud along with a team of physicians like Hakim Momina, Hakim Sadra, had treated Queen Mumtaz Mahl for high degree burns and other resultant complications like hectic fever and parozysm."25" After the recovery of the queen, Shahjahan bestowed on him the rank of CCI ahar Hazart (Officer having 4000 horsemen under his command), a horse with golden saddle and an elephant as gift."26"
In the 31st year of his accession, Shahjahan had developed some urine trouble (strangury). When treated by some court physicians other complications arose. They included constipation which could not be cured despite their best efforts. Ultimately Hakim Da'wud was called for treatment and the Emperor recovered soon. Shahjahan was so much pleased at his recovery that he raised the Hakim to the rank of Panj Hazdri (Officer having 5000 horsemen under his command).
Hakim Da'wud also lived during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb. He died in 1073 A.H./1663 A.D."
22) Badshah Nama, by Abdul Hamid Lahori (Asiatic Society of Bengal), Calcutta, 1868. Vol. III, p. 388
23) Amal-i Saleh or Shahjahan Nama, by Muhammad Saleh Kanbuh, (Asiatic Society of Bengal), Calcutta, 1227 A.H./1821 A.D. Vol. III, p. 388. 
24) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. III, p. 625.
25) Badshah Nama, by Abdul Hamid Lahori (Asiatic Society of Bengal), Calcutta, 1868. Vol. III, p. 368.
26) Amal-i Saleh or Shahjahan Nama, by Muhammad Saleh Kanbuh, (Asiatic Society of Bengal), Calcutta, 1227 A.H./1821 A.D. Vol. III, p. 418
27) Atibba-i Ahd-i Mughaliya, by Sayyid Ali Kauthar Chandpuri (Hamdard Academy), Karachi, 1955, p. 90.